Redelegation & Unbonding
The incentive for delegating tokens to a Node Operator, is that you, as a participant, can earn rewards based on the stake of the Node Operator. Each Node Operator will have a commission rate. This is the percentage of tokens that the Node Operator will take as commission for running the infrastructure - the remaining percentage is distributed to the participants.
You should be mindful about what reputation the Node Operator has. This is because the Node Operator may use your votes against the best interest of yourself and the community. As cheqd evolves, it is likely that there will become a political spectrum of Node Operators, who will cast their vote in different directions. Some may want to create chaos on the network and vote to disrupt the established paradigms, for example. A chaotic actor may lure users to delegate to them with a favourable commission rate, and use the accumulated bonded tokens against the best interests of the network. For this reason the choice of Node Operator you delegate to is very important.
As the name would suggest, staking is not risk free. As the word stake literally means “having something to gain or lose by having a form of ownership of something”, individuals should be wary of the risk, as we’ll come on to.
Think of it like this, if someone says to you “what’s at stake?” they are essentially asking: “what am I risking in return for the potential rewards?”
Node Operators might exhibit bad behaviour on the Network and, as a result, have their stake slashed. Slashing means taking stake away from the Node Operator and adding it to the Community Pool.
Bad behaviour in this context usually means that the Node Operator has not signed a sufficient number of blocks as ‘pre commits’ over a certain period of time. This could be due to inactivity or potential malicious intent.
For example in June 2019, CosmosPool a former Cosmos validator, experienced a server outage on their main node; downtime that resulted in its validator being temporarily jailed and its stake being slashed by 0.01%, including that of its delegators. This was what’s call a downtime slashing incident (soft slashing) whereby the validator and delegators were punished for downtime proportionally to their stake on the network. On top of this, further slashing later occurred as evidence was found of double block signing. Both CosmosPool AND the delegators’ stakes were slashed an additional 5% and the validator was peremandiet removed (‘tombstoned’).
Slashing can therefore certainly affect your delegated and bonded tokens, so it is important to consider your choice.
Yes, it is possible to instantly redelegate to a new Node Operator. You must complete your redelegation to a Node Operator before moving again.
If you want to completely withdraw and unbond your tokens from the active pool, you need to be mindful that this process takes 2 weeks for the tokens to become available for use again. This unbonding period is an example of a parameter which can be adjusted by the Governance Framework process.